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Report abuse. Details required :. Cancel Submit. Ashutosh M Moderator. Hi, It is so very good to know that you were able to fix the issues with Word yourself..

This is a “work in progress. The clipboard group is on the far left of the Home Tab. It is often used in conjunction with the Editing group , which is on the far right of that tab. The arrow button is to merge formatting and the A is to paste the content into the destination document’s formatting.

Set Default Paste It gives far more nuanced control through the Advanced Word Options. Another way of looking at this is that it is the beginning of moving text or graphics from one part of a document to another or to a different document or even program.

The second step – the new location placement is done with the Paste command or button. The Copy Button also puts selected text or graphics into the Clipboard.

It remains where it is, though. I strongly urge people to use Styles rather than the Format Painter. In the long run it will make your life much simpler. Double-clicking on it allows you to paste to different areas using the mouse brush pointer. These all work with the Office Clipboard as well as the System Clipboard. You can see what is in the Office Clipboard by clicking on the dialog launcher in the bottom right corner of the Clipboard group.

This launches the Office Clipboard Task Pane which shows items recently added to the Office Clipboard with the latest at the top. If you Copy or Cut from any program while an Office program is open, the content is added to the Office Clipboard as well as to the System Clipboard.

When you paste content, it will be from the System Clipboard which holds one item. That pane is anchored to the left side of the Word window by default but can be made to float and can be resized when floating.

The top of the Office Clipboard Task Pane will tell you the number of items in the clipboard out of the possible If, with the Clipboard Task Pane showing, you click on one of the items, it will be pasted into your document at the current insertion point even if it was not the last item placed in the clipboard.

Note that if you Copy or Cut material more than once, it will occupy multiple postitions in the Office Clipboard. Note, the Windows System Clipboard holds the last item cut or copied. It only holds one item.

The font group has to do with how characters look. It is distinguished from the paragraph group where the formatting handles the entire paragraph. I am going to divide these controls into three parts:. Change Case : – Note that Small Caps is not one of the options. Highlighting : – Highlighting is not considered formatting in Word Highlighting cannot be part of a Style definition unlike shading and is not reversed by the Clear Formatting button. Next is the Oops button: Clear Formatting, which will strip the effects of the other buttons in the font group from selected text.

Clear All Formatting This says it clears all formatting. This is not accurate. It then changes the paragraph style to the Normal style.

The Clear Formatting button will clear any of the formatting applied by the remaining buttons in the Font Group or direct paragraph formatting as well as any style formatting. You can click on them to give a list to select from or you can type in them. In the size window you can type a size that is not on the dropdown list. In the Font window you can start typing the name of a font and it will fill in the first font name that fits as you type.

The increments are according to the font sizes shown in the dropdown for fonts except that for smaller sizes it will go in increments of one that can be lower than any shown.

The minimum is 1. These two buttons apply Bold or Italic formatting to text. When the insertion point is inside text that has been formatted as bold or Italic, these buttons will be shaded. Bold and Italic are toggle formatting. Both can be applied to the same text, so that you can have text formatted Bold and Italic.

I tend to use the Strong and Emphasis character styles instead of the direct formatting in case of a theme change. There is no built-in style for that.

Applying the style is not a toggle. Clicking on the Underline button will underscore your text. Clicking the little triangle on the right will give you options for the type of underline you want. Once you select an option, that option is active during your Word session including in different documents. The Underline Color brings up a palette. More Underlines You can only apply one type of underlining to a character. This is character formatting so you could apply different types to different characters in the same word.

If text is already underlined and you click on the Underline button, the underlining will be removed. The Strikethrough button gives you a single line through selected text. A double line is possible through the Font Formatting dialog box below. If this button is clicked on text that already has double-line strikethrough, it changes it to single-line.

If it is clicked on text that already has single-line strikethrough, that is removed. The Strikethrough button will be shaded if selected text has a single underline applied.

These buttons are toggles and will be shaded when text is selected to which they apply. Text Effects. The second tab is the Insert Tab. After you have formatted your text using functions found under the Home Tab, it is believed the next logical step would be to insert elements into your document. Imagine anything you can insert into a document, for example, tables, graphics, headers, footers, symbols, etc:. The third tab is the Page Layout Tab.

After you have formatted your text and inserted elements such as tables or pictures, it is believed you may want to alter the page size, orientation or add background color to the page to match the theme of your document:.

The fourth tab, called the References Tab, will be useful if you are creating a contract or dissertation or any type of document to which you would like to add automatic references such as index, table of contents, cross referencing, citations or bibliographies and footnotes:. The next tab is the Mailings Tab. This is a less often used tab as it pertains specifically to printing envelopes, labels and performing mail merges.

You will use this tab if you, for example, wish to send personalized copies of your document to hundreds of readers or to print mailing labels or envelopes:. Before you press send though, move on to the second last tab, the Review Tab, and be sure to do a review of your document using tools such as the spell checker. You may also want to add comments, add restrictions to the document so that no one can make changes or enable track changes, so that all changes made will be discernable:.

Lastly, but not to be forgotten, is the View Tab. Use the View Tab to change how your document is displayed on the screen and to get a better idea of what it will look like printed in the Print Layout View or view which styles are used in the document by changing to the Outline or Draft View. You can also use the Zoom view to get a close up view of elements in your document:. There are also tabs called contextual tabs. These appear only in the context of specific types of content and the content has to be selected or your cursor positioned within the content, for these tabs to appear.

There are contextual tabs for just about every element you can insert into a Word document, for example tables, images, headers and footers, shapes and many more. You can identify the contextual tabs in that they will appear or disappear as soon as you move away from the element and they are also usually brightly colored.


– اثار – المواقع التاريخية والسياحية في العالم – المتاحف


However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture. Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. Results Pathogens were identified in of the cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports.

However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data. Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty.

In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period.

Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors – pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing.

Nasal septal hematoma. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines. Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products.

In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed.

Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach.

The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines. Nasal capillariasis in a dog. A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations.

Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area. Measurement with nasal scintigraphy of nasal mucociliary clearance in normal man.

Nasal mucociliary function was evaluated by nasal scintigraphy in normal subjects. A microdrop of HSA or saline labelled with 99m Tc was dripped into the middle part of each middle meatus in the nasal cavity and its clearance was observed by scinticamera. The accumulated concentration of RI was determined every 30 seconds for 10 minutes. Nasal resistance was measured by rhinomanometry with the oscillation method.

In nonsmokers, there is a significant negative correlation between nasal resistance and clearance rate, suggesting that the more patent the nose, the faster the mucociliary clearance. When both nostrils were closed, the clearance rate was significantly depressed. When one nostril was closed, there was no significant effect on clearance.

Nasal resistance was decreased by exercise with a bicycle ergometer. Nasal mucociliary clearance was slightly decreased after exercise but not significantly so. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture. Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone.

Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla.

Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. Full Text Available Herbs are environmentally friendly commodities that slogan ‘back to nature’.

Herbal is a reliable commodityIndonesia because herbal raw material comes from Indonesia’s abundant biodiversity. However, the currentIndonesian herbal faced a number of challenges to be able to compete with the herbs that come from foreigncountries. The existence of the Free Trade Agreement can be seen by the opening of the market to the entry ofIndonesian herbal products imported from Cina, India, Malaysia, and others.

Economically, Indonesia’s tradebalance deficit with export figures of herbal products continues to decline. That is, the existence of free tradeagreements is adversely affected by the low competitiveness of herbal products against imported products thatcirculate in Indonesia. Will EAC able to lift Indonesian herbal products from the domestic market?. Full Text Available Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition.

The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma HCC agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets.

However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.

Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production.

Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue. Prescription for herbal healing. John’s Wort, to less familiar remedies, such as khella and prickly ash Chinese and ayurvedic herbal combinations Discussion of more than common disorders from acne to yeast infection, and suggested herbal treatment therapies” Full Text Available Nasal polyps are inflammatory proliferative tumors arising from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

Although many cases concerning nasal polyps have been reported, those involving external nasal deformities are rare. We report a case of nasal polyposis filling the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, leading to external nasal and facial deformities. An evaluation of selected herbal reference texts and comparison to published reports of adverse herbal events. There has been a recent proliferation of medical reference texts intended to guide practitioners whose patients use herbal therapies.

We systematically assessed six herbal reference texts to evaluate the information they contain on herbal toxicity. We selected six major herbal references published from to to evaluate the adequacy of their toxicological information in light of published adverse events. We searched Medline to to identify published reports of adverse effects potentially related to these same 12 herbs. We scored each herbal reference text on the basis of information inclusiveness for the target 12 herbs, with a maximal overall score of 3.

The herbs, identified on the basis of CPCS-SF call frequency were: St John’s wort, ma huang, echinacea, guarana, ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, tea tree oil, goldenseal, arnica, yohimbe and kava kava.

The overall herbal reference scores ranged from 2. The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database received the highest overall score and was the most complete and useful reference source. All of the references, however, lacked sufficient information on management of herbal medicine overdose, and several had incorrect overdose management guidelines that could negatively impact patient care. Current herbal reference texts do not contain sufficient information for the assessment and management of adverse health effects of botanical therapies.

To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people’s livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels.

Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people’s livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China’s rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.

There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Herbal Medicine – Multiple Languages. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities. A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa.

Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity.

In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes.

Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones. With the development of society and the improvement of people’s living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent.

The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it’s also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important.

The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances.

The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an “integration” mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise.

The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs.

Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies.

Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments.

The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. Risk factors for nasal malignancies in German men: the South-German Nasal cancer study. There are few studies of the effects of nasal snuff and environmental factors on the risk of nasal cancer. This study aimed to investigate the impact of using nasal snuff and of other risk factors on the risk of nasal cancer in German men.

Tumor registries and ear, nose and throat departments provided access to patients born in or later. Telephone interviews were conducted with cases mean age Ever-use of nasal snuff was associated with an odds ratio OR for nasal cancer of 1. The OR in ever-smokers vs. Exposure to hardwood dust for at least 1 year resulted in an OR of 2.

The OR for nasal cancer after exposure to organic solvents for at least 1 year was 1. The OR after use of insecticides in homes was 1. Smoking and exposure to hardwood dust were confirmed as risk factors for nasal carcinoma. There is evidence that exposure to organic solvents, and in-house use of insecticides could represent novel risk factors. Exposure to asbestos and use of nasal snuff were risk factors in smokers only.

Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants. Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and.

Nasal obstruction and human communication. Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight HMW of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa.

Recent studies have focused particularly on the nasal application of HMW therapeutic agents such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines intended for systemic effects. Besides their weak mucosal membrane permeability and enzymatic degradation in nasal mucosa, these drugs are rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity after administration because of mucociliary clearance.

There are many approaches for increasing the residence time of drug formulations in the nasal cavity resulting in enhanced drug absorption. In this review article, nasal route and transport mechanisms across the nasal mucosa will be briefly presented. In the second part, current studies regarding the nasal application of macromolecular drugs and vaccines with nanoand micro-particulate carrier systems will be summarised. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson’s disease.

Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson’s disease PD in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories.

We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities.

A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc.

These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine.

Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the. Puerarin transport across rat nasal epithelial cells and the influence of compatibility with paeoniflorin and menthol. Consequently, how to make full use of this pathway in practical applications has become a focus of drug design. However, many aspects affecting drug delivery from the nose to the brain remain unclear.

This study aimed to more deeply investigate the transport of puerarin and to explore the mechanism underlying the influence of compatible drugs on puerarin permeability in a primary cell model simulating the nasal mucosa. In this research, based on rat nasal epithelial cells RNECs cultured in vitro and cytotoxicity assays, the bidirectional transport of puerarin across RNEC monolayers and the effect of its compatibility with peoniflorin and menthol were analyzed.

The apparent permeability coefficient was nasal administration of the studied drugs and lay the foundation for a deeper investigation of the nose—brain pathway and nasal administration. Keywords: Chinese herbal compound. E-mail: chengyy zju. A nasal septal abscess NA is defined as a collection of pus between the cartilage or bony septum and its normally applied mucoperichondrium or mucoperiostium.

It is an uncommon disease which should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of nasal obstruction and recent history of nasal trauma, periodontal infection or an inflammatory process of the rhinosinusal region.

We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with bilateral NA caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MR-CO in order to emphasize the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel. Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss. Weight loss – herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity – herbal remedies; Overweight – herbal remedies Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage.

The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. Albumin was chosen The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique.

It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick Objective measurements for grading the nasal esthetics on Basal view in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity.

The purpose of this study is to ascertain objective nasal measurements from the basal view that are predictive of nasal esthetics in individuals with secondary cleft nasal deformity. Thirty-three patients who had undergone unilateral cleft lip repair were retrospectively reviewed in this study.

The degree of nasal deformity was subjectively ranked by seven surgeons using standardized basal-view measurements.

Nine physical objective parameters including angles and ratios were measured. Correlations and regressions between these objective and subjective measurements were then analyzed. The columellar angle had a more powerful effect in rating nasal esthetics. There was reliable concordance in subjective ranking of nasal esthetics by surgeons. Measurement of the columnar angle may serve as an independent, objective predictor of esthetics of the nose. Determination of regional respiratory deposition of inhaled aerosols is critical for evaluation of the health effects of air pollutants.

Little information on ultrafine particles less than 0. Total deposition of ultrafine aerosols in these casts was then determined using a unidirectional flow system. Measured pressure drops in the casts were a function of flow rate to the power of 1. Deposition data were obtained from these casts, using monodisperse sodium chloride aerosols with particle size ranging from 0.

Similar deposition data were obtained for the three casts studied. The deposition efficiency was greatest for the smallest particles, and decreased with increasing particle size and flow rate, indicating that diffusion was the dominant mechanism for deposition. Turbulent diffusion was considered to be the dominant mechanism for deposition of ultrafine particles in the nasal passage. This information is important for understanding the toxicity and carcinogenicity of submicrometer particles, including diesel soot, radon progeny and vapors.

Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate. Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a tabular compilation of reported cases.

Herbal hepatotoxicity is a field that has rapidly grown over the last few years along with increased use of herbal products worldwide. To summarize the various facets of this disease, we undertook a literature search for herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported cases of herbal hepatotoxicity.

A selective literature search was performed to identify published case reports, spontaneous case reports, case series and review articles regarding herbal hepatotoxicity. A total of publications were identified and the results compiled. They show 60 different herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements with reported potential hepatotoxicity, additional information including synonyms of individual herbs, botanical names and cross references are provided.

If known, details are presented for specific ingredients and chemicals in herbal products, and for references with authors that can be matched to each herbal product and to its effect on the liver. In many other publications, however, causality was not properly evaluated by a liver-specific and for hepatotoxicity-validated causality assessment method such as the scale of CIOMS Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences.

This compilation presents details of herbal hepatotoxicity, assisting thereby clinical assessment of involved physicians in the future. Nasal endotracheal intubation in a premature infant with a nasal encephalocele. After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid CSF from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula.

Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate. Images PMID Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing.

The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study. Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature.

We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions.

One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions.

Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products.

It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

Nasal budesonide offers superior symptom relief in perennial allergic rhinitis in comparison to nasal azelastine. Allergic rhinitis is usually treated with oral antihistamines or nasal steroids. Topically active nasal antihistamine is a new treatment modality for allergic rhinitis.

The efficacy in comparison to well established topical treatment alternatives is not fully known. To compare the efficacy of intranasally administered azelastine to budesonide, at their respectively recommended dosage, on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis patients.

The patients with at least a 2-year history of perennial allergic rhinitis recorded individual nasal symptom scores, the degree of symptom control achieved and any adverse events experienced over a 2-week baseline period and a 6-week treatment period. Following treatment, the reductions in mean combined and individual nasal symptom scores from baseline values were significantly greater in the budesonide group compared with the placebo group P nasal symptom scores P nasal symptoms P nasal symptom scores did not differ between azelastine and placebo.

The study medications were well tolerated, producing no unexpected or serious treatment-related adverse events. A once-daily dose of microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of microg of azelastine. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels.

The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume p nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels.

However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical. Effects of single-sided inferior turbinectomy on nasal function and airflow characteristics. Knowledge of airflow characteristics in the nasal cavity is essential to understanding the physiologic and pathologic aspects of nasal breathing.

Airflows inside post-surgery models were investigated both experimentally and numerically to simulate the inferior turbinectomy. The left cavities of all three models are normal and right cavity is modified by 1 excision of the head of the inferior turbinate, 2 resection of the lower fifth of the inferior turbinate, and 3 resection of almost the entire inferior turbinate. Thin-slice CT computed tomography data 0. After numerical experiments and validation by comparison with the PIV results, the CFD code using the Reynolds stress turbulent model and variable temperature boundary condition on the mucosal wall was chosen as the proper numerical framework.

Both global quantities pressure drop , flow rate ratio, total wall heat transfer and local changes velocity, temperature, humidity, pressure gradient, and wall shear stress were numerically investigated. The turbinectomy obviously altered the main stream direction. The flow rate in the upper airway near the olfactory slit decreased in models 1 and 3. This may weaken the olfactory function of the nose. Fluid and thermal properties that are believed to be related with physiology and prognosis are dependent on turbinate resection volume, position, and manner.

Widening of the inferior airway does not always result in decreased flow resistance or wall heat transfer. The gains and losses of inferior turbinectomy were considered by analysis of the post-surgery model results.

Nasal resistance was increased in model 1 due to sudden airway expansion. Nasal resistance increased and the wall heat transfer decreased in model 3 due to sudden airway expansion and. Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.

Constipation and Herbal medicine. Full Text Available Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway.

To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines.

Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine.

Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity. Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label.

A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including ‘ herbal ‘, ‘herbs’, ‘dietary supplement’, ‘liver injury’, ‘hepatitis’ and ‘hepatotoxicity’. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation.

Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed.

Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview.

Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability.

Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability.

The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs herbal , and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action wherever reported and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds.

Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates. Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard.

In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence.

Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome.

We have two groups of patients and three surgeons one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not. Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal.

Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population. Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations.

The research was conducted on randomly selected persons males and females, aged years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements.

There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was The mean values of nasal height were The nasal index in females and males was After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine.

The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.

Traditional nasoalveolar molding NAM requires steep learning curve for clinicians and significant compliance from parents. Nasal springs have been developed by the author to simplify presurgical nasal molding. This article presents the design, construction, and application of the spring. The treatment goal is to improve nasal deformity prior to primary repair in infants born with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

The design, fabrication, and utility of the nasal spring are described. The spring has a simpler design and construction compared to a traditional NAM appliance. Two patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with and without cleft palate are presented.

The spring is constructed and delivered. The active arm of the spring can be 3-dimensionally 3-D adjusted to mold the alar cartilage of the affected nostril. The spring does not require an oral plate for adherence as a traditional NAM appliance does, hence an oral impression is not needed. The spring is easy for clinicians to adjust. It also requires less compliance by parents. The nasal springs are effective in reducing the initial cleft nasal deformity.

This facilitates primary surgical cleft lip and nose correction and improves surgical outcomes in patients with incomplete unilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Despite the development of more researched and formulated orthodox medicines, herbal medicines continue to be well patronized for persons across the world with some patrons concurrently using both forms, oblivious of the unwanted effects that may occur.

Using a multistage sampling procedure, a semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data in April from informants from three selected hospitals and three herbal clinics in Tamale, a city in northern Ghana.

Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, binary logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic predictors of concurrent use of herbal and orthodox medicines. Orthodox medicines were the drug of choice for Also, Up to All health professionals including those in herbal clinics should therefore be interested in the drug history of their clients. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria.

Background Over three-quarter of the world’s population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques.

Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used.

Results A total of 12 herbal medicines crude or refined were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by Family and friends had a marked influence on Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities.

It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects.

For the past few decades, compounds from natural sources have been gaining importance because of the vast chemical diversity they offer. This has led to phenomenal increase in the demand for herbal medicines in the last two decades and need has been felt for ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal drugs.

Phytochemical evaluation is one of the tools for the quality assessment, which include preliminary phytochemical screening, chemoprofiling, and marker compound analysis using modern analytical techniques. High-performance thin-layer chromatography HPTLC has been emerged as an important tool for the qualitative, semiquantitative, and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the herbal drugs and formulations.

This includes developing TLC fingerprinting profiles and estimation of biomarkers. Nasal mass removal in the koala Phascolarctos cinereus.

Nasal masses in the koala Phascolarctos cinereus are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head.

Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs. Meta-analysis of clinical trials on traditional Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis. Chinese herbal medicine CHM has been used for the prevention and treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis PAR , but results are still equivocal. The main outcomes were the changes in the standardized mean difference SMD of nasal symptom scores and total serum IgE level.

Methodological quality was assessed by the modified Jadad’s scale. Seven RCTs with patients were identified and analyzed. However, the published efficacy studies are too small to draw firm conclusion. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma.

Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone – solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue – extramedullary plasmacytoma EMP.

Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma.

Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray.

No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon.

Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment. Nasal symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery: assessment using the General Nasal Patient Inventory. The endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is a recent innovation and is said to reduce the nasal trauma associated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. You’re always looking for new and exciting wines to try. You can’t even keep up with all the new releases, let alone buy them all.

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